Monday, 19 March 2007

O razvoju obrazovanja u Hrvatskoj

U hrvatskoj javnosti stalno se naglašava potreba za povećanjem propusnosti srednjih škola i sveučilista, a sve to kako bi Hrvatska zauzela bolju startnu poziciju u društvu znanja koje navodno dolazi. Zapadni visokoškolski sustav se pri tome nekritički postavlja kao neprijeporan uzor razvoja, čarobna formula koja će nas odvesti u sretnu budućnost, naravno budemo li dovoljno srpljivi i marljivi. Dok mislim da mi imamo što naučiti od zapadnjaka (kao i u nešto manjoj mjeri i oni od nas), mene zabrinjavaju težnje da se političkim dekretom "poboljša" obrazovanje u Hrvatskoj. Tu mislim na Bolonjski proces, obaveznu srednju školu, neograničene upisne kvote na fakultetima, ali i na najnovije prijedloge da se broj studenata u sljedećem mandatu vlade ni više ni manje nego udvostruči.

Razlog tome je što političari naprosto o obrazovanju pojma nemaju. Ne mislim pri tome da (samo) nisu stručno kvalificirani, u smislu da ne znaju Maxwellove jednadžbe ili da ne znaju isprogramirati binarno pretraživanje. Obrazovanje je samo po sebi jako složeno, svaka obrazovna ustanova je jedan mali krhki mikro-ekosustav za sebe koji ako napreduje, napreduje polako, evolucijom, kroz godine sitnih preinaka. Dekreti, administrativne promjene ruše ravnotežu i kratkoročno i srednjoročno mogu donijeti samo pogoršanje.

Obrazovanje se temelji na slabo plaćenom radu učitelja i profesora. To se teško može promijeniti: kad bi se rad u obrazovanju adekvatno platio, svi bi htjeli obrazovati, a ponajviše oni koji bi hruha bez motike. Zato političari, ako žele dobro obrazovanju, moraju biti inventivni u iznalaženju načina da učiteljski odnosno profesorski poziv onima koje znanje i njegovo prenošenje toliko privlači ne bude potpuno neprihvatljiv.

Ono u što se političari svakako ne bi smjeli upuštati su (nagle) promjene obrazovnog sustava. Ako smo do prošle godine imali posla za 100 profesora, sljedeće godine ne možemo predvidjeti posao za 200 profesora jer tih dodatnih 100 profesora naprosto nema. Obje alternative su loše: i ako se preoptereti postojeći kadar i ako se pokuša dovesti previše novog kadra, kvaliteta nastave će pasti. Sve i ako se čarobnim štapićem riješi problem nastavničkog kadra, ostaje problem sirovine.

Iz nekog razloga u našem društvu ima ljudi koji ne završavaju srednju školu. Naši političari su naumili taj problem srezati na način da se srednja škola proglasi obaveznom. Ali nije to samo tako jednostavno. Ljudi koji ne završe srednju školu je obično ne završe jer to ne mogu, a ne zato što im tata kaže da je bolje da doma kopaju krumpire. Onih drugih ne biste vjerovali stvarno ima, ali onih prvih prema onom što sam ja vidio ima puno više. Zašto ima ljudi koji ne mogu završiti srednju školu, i jedino što eventualno nauče u srednjoj školi su zakoni kokošinjca, pušenje i psovanje, to je teško pitanje, ali čisto sumnjam da su nadležni napravili sociološku studiju koja bi to rasvijetlila. A što je s osnovnom školom? Tko u osnovnoj nije išao u razred sa jednim ili dva takozvana propaliteta čiji je vrhunac uspjeha bio da ne ometaju nastavu? Koliko čitam, ima mnogo i nepismenih ljudi. Hoćemo li i njih poslati u obaveznu srednju školu? Ili će možda problem nepismenosti nestati sam od sebe dok sabor ne ratificira novi zakon?

Tu treba biti hrabar pa se zapitati, zašto bi uopće bilo dobro da svi ljudi završe srednju školu? Reći ćete opća kultura, prilika da se druži sa obrazovanijim svijetom... To sve stoji, ali samo u slučaju da škola "radi" kako treba. Iz mog iskustva mogu reći da škola često radi kako ne treba, i da polaznicima prema znanju umjesto ljubavi usadi odbojnost. U srednjoj školi nisam pročitao niti 10% lektira: uvijek bi mi netko prepričao o čemu se radi pa bih nešto uspio smuljati i na kraju ne dobiti lošu ocjenu. Možda mi čitanje Desnice i Novaka nije bilo pravilno predstavljeno, možda mi nije bilo vrijeme za čitanje, tek, sada čitam puno puno više nego u srednjoj školi. Slično je i sa glazbenom umjetnošću: stvarno mi je bilo dosadno pamtiti tko je skladao koju iz niza skladbi koje su ostajale mrtvo slovo na papiru. Sada sviram skoro svaki dan, ne pretjerano dobro doduše, ali mene veseli. I naravno, žao mi je što nisam naučio više teorije onda kad sam za učenje imao više vremena.

Statistike koje pokazuju da su obrazovaniji građani u prosjeku više i bolje zaposleni, zapravo kazuju vrlo malo: trebalo bi usporediti status tih istih ljudi u paralelnom svemiru u kojem ti isti ljudi nisu išli u školu, a to je nemoguće. Osobno poznajem više ljudi koji su odustali od fakulteta jer im je bio predosadan a sada imaju sasvim sređenu profesionalnu karijeru i bez fakultetske diplome. Škola može napraviti kvalitetan proizvod sa motiviranom sirovinom: ostaje problem što napraviti sa onima koji su manje motivirani, pogotovo ako u predavaonici broj takvih naraste preko 50%.

Ključ motivacije polaznika škole je individualni rad. Ljudi su jedinstveni, svakog će zainteresirati drugi aspekt teme koja se obrađuje i svako ujednačavanje kreše mogućnosti da se polaznik navuče na temu i počne sam vući. Velika prilika srednje škole je da se u ekstrakurikularnim aktivnostima djeca upoznaju sa čudima svijeta i zadovoljstvu u njihovom objašnjavanju i primjenjivanju. Tu se moram malo ograditi, jer ono što ja znam je prvenstveno u domeni prirodnih i tehničkih znanosti, ali vjerujem da isti principi vrijede i na društvenom polju. Netko će se na latinski navući čitajući Virgilijevu Enejidu, netko drugi će se na trubu navući slušajući Louisa Armstronga.

Svi smo različiti a opet isti: nitko ne voli pamtiti bez motivacije, a pamtiti je u školi nužno. Odatle i animozitet prema "štreberima", jer se čini da se spuštaju nisko i slušaju poput ovaca. Jedini problem u tom razmišljanju je što "štreberi" obično jesu zainteresirani za to u čemu su u školi dobri, ali motivacija se u društvu srednjoškolaca ismijava. Tu dolazimo do problema masovne srednje škole: nemotivirani polaznici ne mogu shvatiti da je motivacija moguća i izlaz iz dosade nalaze u paralelnom društvenom uređenju gdje je obično najvažniji onaj koji se sustavu najsrčanije suprotstavlja. Motivirani polaznici tako budu društveno izopćeni pa je i maleni potres dovoljan da se presele u drugu grupu.

Slično je i na fakultetima. Činjenica je da sve veći i veći broj studenata nije dovoljno motiviran za savladavanje studija. Takvi studenti ispitima pristupaju metodom minimalnog angažmana, tj. predavajući tuđe vježbe, korištenjem nedozvoljenih pomagala, otkrivanjem minimalnog podskupa gradiva potrebnog za dvicu itd. Fakultet zato djeluje u smislu da minimalni angažman bude dovoljno visok da nemotivirani ljudi naprosto prisilno budu izloženi vježbi koju moraju odraditi.

Tijekom obavezne vježbe, studenti počnu čitati uputstva, ali u jednom trenutku dolaze do problema: nešto se ne ponaša kako bi trebalo i oni su u čudu. Ako su grupe velike i asistent nema vremena da pogurne malo, čuđenje prelazi u frustraciju, vrlo brzo nakon toga u brbljanje, čitanje novina, igranje karata, i nepovratno propada prilika da se studenti zakače.

Vjerojatnost da se nemotivirani student "konvertira" na predavanju je po meni puno manja, jer su predavači preopterećeni i ne mogu dovoljno pažnje posvetiti vježbanju scenskog nastupa. Na obaveznim predavanjima nemotivirani studenti toliko bruje da nitko ne čuje ništa, dok se na neobaveznim predavanjima nema koga konvertirati. Za napredak kvalitete naobrazbe je zato ključno (i) da su grupe malene, (ii) da kurikulum predviđa praktičan rad, (iii) da ima vremena za ekstrakurikularne aktivnosti, i (iv), da nema previše nemotiviranih polaznika. Trenutni trendovi su koncentrirani na kvantitet i zasigurno će loše utjecati na svaki od navedena tri faktora.

Neposredni povod za ovo grintanje je jedna tužbalica iz Engleske [1] (hvala Borise!), koja pokazuje da ovi problemu nisu isključivo posljedica nedavnog nikad proglašenog rata i socijalističkog nasljeđa. Zapadno društvo ima nešto dužu neprekinutu tradiciju visokoškolskog obrazovanja, pa je i njihov znanstveni rad bolji. Malo im pomaže i to što imaju više novaca. Ali dekretsko upravljanje obrazovanjem rezultira jednakim problemima kao i ovdje.

[1] Why I am Not a Professor OR The Decline and Fall of the British University

19 comments:

Nikola said...

Ja Bolognu doživljavam kao neku vrstu Evropske "Šuvarice". Bez obzira na to kakvi će rezultati te reforme biti kod nas, mislim da je u cijeloj toj priči pozitivna jedna stvar: konačno se o potrebi kvalitetnijeg obrazovanja počelo pričati. Vidljiva je želja vlasti da započne neke reforme u sustavu obrazovanja. Naravno, netko može postaviti pitanje što je njih motiviralo (ili bolje reći natjeralo) da uopće o tome počnu razmišljati, iako to pitanje i nije od presudne važnosti. Bitno je da postoji svijest o nužnosti promjena. A i to je, uzevši u obzir naše prilike, već mali korak za čovječanstvo, ali ogroman za Hrvatsku.

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Komentar na komentar. Nikola kaže, "Bitno je da postoji svijest o nužnosti promjena". Problem je što promjene, sasvim općenito govoreći, mogu doći u dvije vrste: na bolje i na gore. A ako će "svijest o nužnosti promjena" rezultirati promjenama ove potonje vrste, kao što se dade naslutiti da hoće, onda bi - po mom skromnom mišljenju - vjerojatno bilo bolje da do te svijesti nije ni došlo.

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